The City of Bordeaux was founded in the First Century by a local clan of people known as the Biturgies Vivisques, with the city's original name being Burdigala. Burdigala, because of its advantageous location, quickly became a prosperous commerce centre, but the City's economic success made it the target of barbaric invasions, which were frequent until the 12th Century when Aliénor d'Aquitaine and Henry II came to power and negotiated peace.
For nearly three centuries the town came under English control following the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II of England 1152.He was also Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy . . All English kings held land in France following the invasion of England by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy in 1066. (Note to previous contributor- England, not Britain which did not exist as a nation then. Scotland was allied with France ). During The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 the French kings tried to assert their control over the lands held by the English kings. This period of warfare gave impetus to ideas about French nationality and to France being united instead of being divided into Dukedoms. The population at this time was - France 14 million and England 2 million. Eventually all lands held by the English in France were lost. Bordeaux was captured in 1451, the last town to be captured by the French was Calais in 1558.
During the period of Britain's governance over the region, Bordeaux became an even larger commerce centre with richer resources. After coming back under French control during the 100 Years War, Bordeaux continued to expand, but nearly all commerce in the city ceased during the French Revolution, forcing Bordeaux into an economic standstill until the middle of the 19th Century, when it finally was able to recover.
Today Bordeaux is France's most famous wine region and a prosperous City which attracts thousands of visitors each year for its wine, food, history and architecture.